2D Pilatus3 1M Detector System

 

The Pilatus3 1M detector system (https://www.dectris.com/pilatus3_specifications.html#main_head_navigation) operates in "single photon counting" mode and is based on the CMOS hybrid pixel technology: the X-rays are directly transformed into electric charge, and processed in the CMOS readout chips. This new design has no dark current or readout noise, a high dynamic range of 20 bits (~1 million counts), a read-out time of less than 1 ms, a frame rate of up to 500 images/s and an excellent point spread function of 1 pixel. The data are stored in TIF format and can be directly processed with FIT2D [1]

  
Technical specifications:

Pixel size: 172 x 172 µm2
Format 1 module 487 x 195 = 94,965 pixels
Module size 83.8 x 33.5 mm2
Number of modules 2 x 5 = 10
Total area 168.7 x 179.4 mm2
Total number of pixels 981 x 1043 = 1023183
Intermodule gap x: 7 pixels, y: 17 pixels, 7.2 % of total area
Sensor reverse-biased silicon diode array
Energy range 5 - 36 keV
Dynamic range 20 bits (1:1,048,573)
Counting rate per pixel 107 photons/s
Energy resolution 500 eV
Adjustable threshold range 2.7 – 18 keV
Threshold dispersion 50 eV
Readout time 0.95 ms
Framing rate 500 Hz
Point-spread function 1 pixel
Data formats Raw data, TIF, EDF, CBF
External trigger/gate 5V TTL

[1] A.P. Hammersley, "Fit2D: an introduction and overview", ESRF Internal Report, ESRF97HA02T, 1997
 

 

          

2D Pilatus 100K Detector System

 

The Pilatus 100K detector system (http://www.dectris.com/sites/pilatus100k.html) operates in "single photon counting" mode and is based on the CMOS hybrid pixel technology: the X-rays are directly transformed into electric charge, and processed in the CMOS readout chips. This new design has no dark current or readout noise, a high dynamic range of 1000000 (20 bits), a read-out time of less than 3 ms, a framing rate of over 200 images/s and an excellent point spread function of < 1 pixel.
The data are stored in TIF format and can be directly processed with FIT2D [1]

Technical specifications:

Pixel size: 172 x 172 µm2
Format 487 x 195 = 94,965 pixels
Area 83.8 x 33.5 mm2
Dynamic range 20 bits (1:1,048,576)
Counting rate per pixel > 2 x 106 X-ray/s
Energy range 3 – 30 keV
Quantum efficiency
(calculated)
3 keV: 80%
8 keV: 99%
15 keV: 55%
Energy resolution 500 eV
Adjustable threshold range 2 – 20 keV
Threshold dispersion 50 eV
Readout time 2.7 ms
Framing rate 300 Hz
Point-spread function 1 pixel
Data formats Raw data, TIF, EDF, CBF
External trigger/gate 5V TTL, 3 different mode

[1] A.P. Hammersley, "Fit2D: an introduction and overview", ESRF Internal Report, ESRF97HA02T, 1997
 

 

2D Image Plate

 

         

altThe Mar300  Image  Plate  detector with  a  circular  active  area  of  300mm  in  diameter  is  the largest-area detector available to users of the beamline, with a spatial  resolution (pixel size) of 150µm.  This  detector  has  two modes  of  operation  (180mm  or  300mm),  depending  on  the desired active area, which  result  in  image  sizes of 1200x1200 and 2000x2000,  respectively. They  are  stored  in  the  mar  image  format  (16  bit  for  compactness,  with  higher  precision extensions  for  values  out  of  range),  and  can  be  processed  and  converted  using  the  Fit2D program  [1].  Typical  applications  are  those  that  need  a  large  Q-range  with  high  dynamic range  (typical  values  of  105 ),  i.e.  solution  scattering  from  proteins  and  nanoparticles, temperature-step scans, slow processes like nanoparticle formation, mesophase formation, etc. The exposure time for the Image Plate is given in seconds, with typical values between 1 and 60. Readout  time depends on  the chosen active area  (for 180mm mode, about 130  seconds;for 300mm mode, about 210 seconds), and therefore it is not suitable for samples where high time  resolution  is  needed. Exposure  information,  number  of  images  in  the  series  and  other information is automatically written to a summary file after each image.

 
 

          

2D CCD-Camera

 

altThe CCD (the GemStar/XIDIS model from Photonic Science) is a high resolution and sensitivity camera, providing a high dynamic range (16 bit) and advanced features such as on-camera binning and external triggering. The camera is fully software-controlled using the Image Pro Plus software, and connects to the controlling computer via a Hi-Speed USB interface.

  CCD specifications:

Sensitive area: 82 x 74 mm (110 mm diagonal)
Image size: 2048 x 2048
Pixel size: 43 μm
Dynamic range: 16 bit (20 bit in exposure fusion mode)
Binning: x1, x2, x4, x8 (independent X and Y, on-chip and in software)
Interface: external triggering, external gating (3.3V TTL)
Intensifier gain: 12 bit (0-4095 levels, approx 200:1 max gain)
Exposure time:  
Frame rate: at x1 binning, ~800 ms readout time per frame
at x8 binning (on-chip), ~145 ms readout time per frame
Image format: 16 bit TIFF native (Image Pro Plus allows exporting to other formats as well)

 

 

1D Gabriel Type Gas detectors

 

altTwo 1D Gabriel-type detectors are available, which have an active area of 100 x 8 mm2 and 150 x 8 mm2, respectively. Both have 1024 pixels, and thus the corresponding spatial resolution is about 135 microns and 175 microns, respectlively.  They can be used simultaneously, and are run with the data acquisition system  HCI  (Hecus  X-ray  Systems,  Graz,  Austria).  This  detector system  has  the  following performance:

•  Minimal time resolution: 11 microsec
•  Maximum No. of frames: 512
•  Maximum integral count rate: 40 kHz



1D Vantec Detector

 

The high count rate capable Vantec-1 Detector from BrukerAXS Inc. has an active area of 50 x 16 mm and reaches a spatial resolution of about 50 !m. Its new  gas  amplification  principle  based  on  the Microgap  technology  [1]  allows much  higher count  rates  compared  to  the  Gabriel-type gas detectors.  Currently  the  main  limitation  is  the  data  acquisition system with its maximum integral count rate of about 1 MHz. In the present data acquisition system  HCI  (Hecus  X-ray  Systems,  Graz,  Austria)  the  detector  has  the  following performance:

•  Minimal time resolution: 11 microsec
•  Maximum No. of frames: 512 (depending on the no. of channels)
•  Maximum integral count rate: 1 MHz

[1] http://www.bruker-axs.com/x_ray_detectors.html